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Week's definition: Ransomware
 Ransomware is a type of malicious software from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim's data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid.
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Week's definition: Circular economy
 A circular economy is a regenerative system in which resource input and waste, emission, and energy leakage are minimized by slowing, closing, and narrowing material and energy loops.
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Week's definition: Deep learning
 Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning or hierarchical learning) is the application to learning tasks of artificial neural networks (ANNs) that contain more than one hidden layer. Deep learning is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on learning data representations, as opposed to task specific algorithms. Learning can be supervised, partially supervised or unsupervised.
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Week's definition: Predictive analytics
 Predictive analytics encompasses a variety of statistical techniques from predictive modeling, machine learning, and data mining that analyze current and historical facts to make predictions about future or otherwise unknown events.
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Week's definition: blockchain
 A blockchain – originally block chain – is a distributed database that maintains a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, secured from tampering and revision. Each block contains a timestamp and a link to a previous block.
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Week's definition: Bluetooth 5
 The Bluetooth SIG officially unveiled Bluetooth 5 during a media event in London on 16 June 2016. Its new features are mainly focused on emerging Internet of Things technology.
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Week's definition: A digital signature
 A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of digital messages or documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender (authentication), that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (non-repudiation), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity).
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Week's definition: Botnet
 A botnet is a number of Internet-connected devices used by a botnet owner to perform various tasks.
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Week's definition: Geophysics
 The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields; its internal structure and composition; its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation.
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Week's definition: Data science
 Data science, also known as data-driven science, is an interdisciplinary field about scientific processes and systems to extract knowledge or insights from data in various forms, either structured or unstructured, which is a continuation of some of the data analysis fields such as statistics, machine learning, data mining, and predictive analytics, similar to Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD).
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Week's definition: Industry 4.0
 Industrie 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution, is the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. It includes cyber-physical systems, the Internet of things and cloud computing.
 
Week's definition: Denial-of-service attack (DoS attack)
 In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack where the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users, such as to temporarily or indefinitely interrupt or suspend services of a host connected to the Internet.
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Week's definition: Blended learning
 Blended learning is a formal education program in which a student learns at least in part through delivery of content and instruction via digital and online media with some element of student control over time, place, path, or pace.
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Week's definition: Machine learning
 Machine learning is a subfield of computer science (more particularly soft computing) that evolved from the study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence. In 1959, Arthur Samuel defined machine learning as a "Field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed".
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Week's definition: MOOC
 A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web.
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Week's definition: Business intelligence
 Business intelligence (BI) can be described as "a set of techniques and tools for the acquisition and transformation of raw data into meaningful and useful information for business analysis purposes".
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Week’s definition: Optical fiber
 An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
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Week's definition: Fracking
 Hydraulic fracturing (also hydrofracturing, hydrofracking, fracking, or fraccing) is a well-stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
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Week's definition: Bot 2.0
 Bots are becoming a lot more capable. They can now send any type of content, provide location-based services and integrate with other services deeply based on users' preferences.
 
Week's definition: Bot
 A bot (derived from the word "robot") is an automated or semi-automated tool that carries out repetitive and mundane tasks to maintain the 39,123,831 pages of the English Wikipedia. Bots are able to make edits very rapidly and can disrupt Wikipedia if they are incorrectly designed or operated. For these reasons, a bot policy has been developed.
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Week's definition: IANA
 The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a department of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and numbers.
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Week's definition: BCI
 A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.
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Week's definition: Dimensional metrology
 Dimensional Metrology is the science of calibrating and using physical measurement equipment to quantify the physical size of or distance from any given object. Inspection is a critical step in product development and quality control.
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Week's definition: Li-Fi
 Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) is a bidirectional, high speed and fully networked wireless communication technology similar to Wi-Fi. Coined by Prof. Harald Haas, Li-Fi is a subset of optical wireless communications (OWC) and can be a complement to RF communication (Wi-Fi or Cellular network), or a replacement in contexts of data broadcasting.
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Week's definition: BYOD
 Bring your own device (BYOD)—also called bring your own technology (BYOT), bring your own phone (BYOP), and bring your own PC (BYOPC)—refers to the policy of permitting employees to bring personally owned mobile devices (laptops, tablets, and smart phones) to their workplace, and to use those devices to access privileged company information and applications.
 
Week's definition: Forensic geology
 Forensic geology is the study of evidence relating to minerals, oil, petroleum, and other materials found in the Earth, used to answer questions raised by the legal system.
 
Week's definition: Deep web (search)
 The Deep Web, Deep Net, Invisible Web, or Hidden Web are search terms referring to the content on the World Wide Web that is not indexed by standard search engines.
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Week's definition: Certificate authority
 In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates.
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Week's definition: Nanometrology
 Nanometrology is a subfield of metrology, concerned with the science of measurement at the nanoscale level. Nanometrology has a crucial role in order to produce nanomaterials and devices with a high degree of accuracy and reliability in nanomanufacturing.
 
Week's definition: Open data
 Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.
 
Week's definition: Sand equivalent test
 The sand equivalent test quantifies the relative abundance of sand versus clay in soil. It is measured by standardized test methods such as ASTM D2419, AASHTO T176, and EN 933-8.
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Week's definition: ZigBee
 ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks built from small, low-power digital radios.
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Week's definition: USB Type-C
 USB Type-C is a specification for a reversible-plug connector for USB devices and USB cabling. It was published by the USB Implementers Forum.
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Week's definition: Passive solar building design
 In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices.
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Week's definition: Arduino
 Arduino is an open-source computer hardware and software company, project and user community that designs and manufactures kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control the physical world.
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Week's definition: Graphene
 Graphene is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex. It is the basic structural element of other allotropes, including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes.
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Week's definition: The third platform
 The third platform is a loosely-defined computing platform that includes technologies becoming commonly available early in the second decade of the twenty-first century.
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Week's definition: Ceramic engineering
 Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. This is done either by the action of heat, or at lower temperatures using precipitation reactions from high-purity chemical solutions. The term includes the purification of raw materials, the study and production of the chemical compounds concerned, their formation into components and the study of their structure, composition and properties.
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Week's definition: Gorilla Glass
 Gorilla Glass is the registered trademark of a specialized toughened glass developed and manufactured by Corning, now in its fourth generation, designed to be thin, light and damage-resistant.
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Week's definition: White biotechnology
 White biotechnology, also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. Another example is the using of enzymes as industrial catalysts to either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/polluting chemicals. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes used to produce industrial goods.

 
Week's definition: Business incubators
 Business incubators differ from research and technology parks in their dedication to startup and early-stage companies. Research and technology parks, on the other hand, tend to be large-scale projects that house everything from corporate, government or university labs to very small companies.
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Week's definition: An unmanned aerial vehicle
 An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone and also referred to as an unpiloted aerial vehicle and a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
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Week's definition: Solid-state drive
 A solid-state drive (SSD) (also known as a solid-state disk or electronic disk, though it contains no actual disk, nor a drive motor to spin a disk) is a data storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives, thus permitting simple replacement in common applications.
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Week's definition: Subsea
 Subsea is a term to refer to equipment, technology, and methods employed in undersea geology, offshore oil and gas developments, underwater mining, and offshore wind power industries.
 
Week's definition: Industrial sociology
 Industrial sociology, until recently a crucial research area within the field of sociology of work, examines "the direction and implications of trends in technological change, globalization, labour markets, work organization, managerial practices and employment relations to the extent to which these trends are intimately related to changing patterns of inequality in modern societies and to the changing experiences of individuals and families the ways in which workers challenge, resist and make their own contributions to the patterning of work and shaping of work institutions."
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Week's definition: Access Control List
 An access control list (ACL), with respect to a computer file system, is a list of permissions attached to an object. An ACL specifies which users or system processes are granted access to objects, as well as what operations are allowed on given objects.
 
Week's definition: Mashup (web application hybrid)
 A mashup, in web development, is a web page, or web application, that uses content from more than one source to create a single new service displayed in a single graphical interface.
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Week's definition: The Internet of Things
 The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing-like devices within the existing Internet infrastructure.
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Week's definition: Powered exoskeleton
 A powered exoskeleton, also known as powered armor, exoframe, or exosuit, is a mobile machine consisting primarily of an outer framework (akin to an insect's exoskeleton) worn by a person, and powered by a system of motors or hydraulics that delivers at least part of the energy for limb movement.
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Week's definition: Ekocycle
 Exclusively printing in post-consumer waste, the EKOCYCLE Cube 3D printer recycles used plastic bottles, so you can remake into new better products.
 
Week's definition: Gamification
 Gamification is the use of game thinking and game mechanics in non-game contexts to engage users in solving problems. Gamification has been studied and applied in several domains, such as to improve user engagement, physical exercise,return on investment, data quality, timeliness, and learning. A review of research on gamification shows that most studies on gamification find positive effects from gamification.
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Week's definition: Phishing
 Phishing is the attempt to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
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Week’s definition: Heartbleed
 Heartbleed is a security bug in the open-source OpenSSL cryptography library, which is widely used to implement the Internet's Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol. This vulnerability, classified as a buffer over-read, results from a missing bounds check in the handling of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) heartbeat extension, the heartbeat being behind the bug's name.
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Week’s definition: 5G
 5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) denotes the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G is also referred to as beyond 2020 mobile communications technologies.
 
Week’s definition: Virtual reality
 Virtual reality (VR), sometimes referred to as immersive multimedia, is a computer-simulated environment that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world or imagined worlds.
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Week’s definition: Hybrid vehicle
 A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle.
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Week’s definition: Project Ara
 Project Ara is an initiative by Google that aims to develop a free, open hardware platform for creating highly modular smartphones.
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Week’s definition: Biodegradation
 Biodegradation is the chemical dissolution of materials by bacteria or other biological means. Although often conflated, biodegradable is distinct in meaning from compostable.
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Week’s definition: Crowdfunding
 Crowdfunding (alternately crowd financing, equity crowdfunding, crowd equity, crowd-sourced fundraising) is the collective effort of individuals who network and pool their money, usually via the Internet, to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations.
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Week’s definition: Bitcoin
 Bitcoin is an open source, peer-to-peer payment network and digital currency introduced in 2009 by pseudonymous developer "Satoshi Nakamoto". Bitcoin has been called a cryptocurrency because it uses public-key cryptography for security.
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Week’s definition: iBeacon
 iBeacon is an indoor positioning system that Apple Inc. calls "a new class of low-powered, low-cost transmitters that can notify nearby iOS 7 devices of their presence". iBeacons can also be used by the Android operating system. iBeacon in a single sentence is a technology that enables an iOS device or other hardware to send push notifications to iOS devices within close proximity.
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Week's definition: Landfill mining and reclamation
 Landfill mining and reclamation (LFMR) is a process whereby solid wastes which have previously been landfilled are excavated and processed.
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Week's definition: 3D printing
 Additive manufacturing or 3D printing is a process of making a three-dimensional solid object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material are laid down in different shapes. 3D printing is also considered distinct from traditional machining techniques, which mostly rely on the removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling (subtractive processes).
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Week's definition: WebRTC
 WebRTC is a free, open project that enables web browsers with Real-Time Communications (RTC) capabilities via simple Javascript APIs.
 
Week's definition: Infographic
 Information graphics or infographics are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present complex information quickly and clearly.
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Week's definition: Induction furnace
 An induction furnace is an electrical furnace in which the heat is applied by induction heating of metal. The advantage of the induction furnace is a clean, energy-efficient and well-controllable melting process compared to most other means of metal melting. Most modern foundries use this type of furnace and now also more iron foundries are replacing cupolas with induction furnaces to melt cast iron, as the former emit lots of dust and other pollutants.
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Week’s definition: Distributed generation
 Distributed generation, also called on-site generation, dispersed generation, embedded generation, decentralized generation, decentralized energy or distributed energy, generates electricity from many small energy sources.
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Week's definition: Green computing
Green computing, green IT or ICT Sustainability, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT.
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Week's definition: Nanoscale iron particles
Nanoscale iron particles are sub-micrometer particles of iron metal. They are highly reactive because of their large surface area. In the presence of oxygen and water, they rapidly oxidize to form free iron ions. They are widely used in medical and laboratory applications and have also been studied for remediation of industrial sites contaminated with chlorinated organic compounds.
 
Week's definition: Geochemistry
 Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans. The realm of geochemistry extends beyond the Earth, encompassing the entire Solar System and has made important contributions to the understanding of a number of processes including mantle convection, the formation of planets and the origins of granite and basalt.
 
Week's definition: Phablet
 Phablet is a class of smartphones with screen sizes ranging between 5 and 6.9 inches and designed to combine or straddle the functionalities of a smartphone and tablet.
 
Week's definition: Oil shale
 Oil shale, also known as kerogen shale, is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales) can be produced.
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Week's definition: Standardization
 Standardization or standardisation is the process of developing and implementing technical standards. The goals of right standardization can be to help with independence of single suppliers (commoditization), compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
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Week's definition: Energy conservation
 Energy conservation refers to reducing energy through using less of an energy service. Energy conservation differs from efficient energy use, which refers to using less energy for a constant service. For example, driving less is an example of energy conservation. Driving the same amount with a higher mileage vehicle is an example of energy efficiency. Energy conservation and efficiency are both energy reduction techniques.
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Week's definition: Quality
 Quality in business, engineering and manufacturing has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or superiority of something; it is also defined as fitness for purpose. Quality is a perceptual, conditional and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people.

 
Week's definition: Raspberry Pi
 The Raspberry Pi is a credit-card-sized single-board computer developed in the UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation with the intention of promoting the teaching of basic computer science in schools.

The Foundation's goal is to offer two versions, priced at US$25 and US$35. The Foundation started accepting orders for the higher priced model B on 29 February 2012 and the lower cost model A on February 4, 2013.
 
Week's definition: E-book
 An electronic book (variously, e-book, ebook, digital book, or even e-edition) is a book-length publication in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, and produced on, published through, and readable on computers or other electronic devices.
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Week's definition: Optical fiber
 An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made of glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair. It functions as a waveguide, or “light pipe”, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber.
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Week's definition: Electrostatic induction
 Electrostatic induction is a redistribution of electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges.

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Week's definition: Artificial intelligence
 Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and robots and the branch of computer science that aims to create it.
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Week's definition: Data mining
 Data mining (the analysis step of the "Knowledge Discovery in Databases" process, or KDD), a field at the intersection of computer science and statistics, is the process that attempts to discover patterns in large data sets.
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Week's definition: Geothermal energy
 Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The Geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).
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Week's definition: Interoperability
 Interoperability is the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate). The term is often used in a technical systems engineering sense, or alternatively in a broad sense, taking into account social, political, and organizational factors that impact system to system performance.
 
Week's definition: Big data
 In information technology, big data is a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools.
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Week's definition: Data integration
 Data integration involves combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of these data.
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Week's definition: Automation
 Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services. The correct incentive for applying automation is to increase productivity, and/or quality beyond that possible with current human labor levels so as to realize economies of scale, and/or realize predictable quality levels.
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Week's definition: Environmental engineering
 Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the natural environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation (house or home) and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. It involves waste water management and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, radiation protection, industrial hygiene, environmental sustainability, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.
 
Week's definition: Portable software
 Portable software is a class of software that is suitable for use on portable drives such as a USB (thumb) drive or digital audio player or PDA with "drive mode", although any external hard drive can be used.
 
Week's definition: Carbon nanotubes
 Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than for any other material.
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Week's definition: Gecko
 Gecko is a free and open source layout engine used in many applications developed by Mozilla Foundation and the Mozilla Corporation (notably the Firefox web browser), as well as in many other open source software projects.
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Week's definition: Hydrogen storage
 Hydrogen storage describes the methods for storing H2 for subsequent use. The methods span many approaches, including high pressures, cryogenics, and chemical compounds that reversibly release H2 upon heating. Underground hydrogen storage is useful to provide grid energy storage for intermittent energy sources, like wind power, as well as providing fuel for transportation, particularly for ships and airplanes.
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Week's definition: Collaborative software
 Collaborative software (also referred to as groupware) is computer software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve goals. One of the earliest definitions of “collaborative software” is, "intentional group processes plus software to support them.".
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Week's definition: Project Glass
 Project Glass is a research and development program by Google to develop an augmented reality head-mounted display (HMD).
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Week's definition: Reuse
 To reuse is to use an item again after is been used. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function, and new-life reuse where it is used for a different function.
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Week's definition: Digital library
 A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. A digital library is a type of information retrieval system.
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Week's definition: Workplace safety
 Workplace safety & health is a category of management responsibility in places of employment.
 
Week's definition: Nanomotor
 A nanomotor is a molecular device capable of converting energy into movement. It can typically generate forces on the order of piconewtons.
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Week's definition: Green chemistry
 Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is a philosophy of chemical research and engineering that encourages the design of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances. Whereas environmental chemistry is the chemistry of the natural environment, and of pollutant chemicals in nature, green chemistry seeks to reduce and prevent pollution at its source.
 
Week's definition: Assisted GPS
 Assisted GPS, generally abbreviated as A-GPS or aGPS, is a system which can, under certain conditions, improve the startup performance, or time-to-first-fix (TTFF) of a GPS satellite-based positioning system. It is used extensively with GPS-capable cellular phones as its development was accelerated by the U.S. FCC's 911 mandate making the location of a cell phone available to emergency call dispatchers.
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Week's definition: Sustainable biofuel
 Biofuels, in the form of liquid fuels derived from plant materials, are entering the market, driven by factors such as oil price spikes and the need for increased energy security. However, many of the biofuels that are currently being supplied have been criticised for their adverse impacts on the natural environment, food security, and land use.
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Week's definition: Mechanical biological treatment
 A mechanical biological treatment system is a type of waste processing facility that combines a sorting facility with a form of biological treatment such as composting or anaerobic digestion. MBT plants are designed to process mixed household waste as well as commercial and industrial wastes.
 
Week's definition: Metrology
 Metrology is the science of measurement. Metrology includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement.
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Week's definition: Environmental technology
 Environmental technology (abbreviated as envirotech) or green technology (abbreviated as greentech) or clean technology (abbreviated as cleantech) is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement.
 
Week's definition: Information retrieval
 Information retrieval (IR) is the area of study concerned with searching for documents, for information within documents, and for metadata about documents, as well as that of searching structured storage, relational databases, and the World Wide Web.
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Week's definition: Information literacy
 The National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as “...the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand.”
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Week's definition: Programmable logic controller
 A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures.
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Week's definition: Enterprise resource planning
 Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems integrate internal and external management information across an entire organization, embracing finance/accounting, manufacturing, sales and service, customer relationship management, etc.
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Week's definition: Crowdsourcing
 Crowdsourcing is a distributed problem-solving and production process that involves outsourcing tasks to a network of people, also known as the crowd.
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Week's definition: Biotechnology
 Biotechnology (sometimes shortened to "biotech") is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose. Modern use of similar terms includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.
 
Week's definition: Google Apps
 Google Apps is a service from Google providing independently customizable versions of several Google products under a custom domain name. It features several Web applications with similar functionality to traditional office suites, including Gmail, Google Groups, Google Calendar, Talk, Docs and Sites.
 
Week's definition: Nanoelectronics
 Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology on electronic components, especially transistors. Although the term nanotechnology is generally defined as utilizing technology less than 100 nm in size, nanoelectronics often refer to transistor devices that are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively.
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Week's definition: E-Government
 E-Government (or Digital Government) is defined as ‘The employment of the Internet and the world-wide-web for delivering government information and services to the citizens.’ (United Nations, 2006; AOEMA, 2005).
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Week's definition: VPN
 A virtual private network (VPN) is a network that uses primarily public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or traveling users an access to a central organizational network.
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Week's definition: Tablet computer
 A tablet computer, or a tablet, is a mobile computer, larger than a mobile phone or personal digital assistant, integrated into a flat touch screen and primarily operated by touching the screen rather than using a physical keyboard. It often uses an onscreen virtual keyboard, a passive stylus pen, or a digital pen.
 
Week's definition: E-learning
 E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems, whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process. The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum.
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Week's definition: Web service
 The W3C defines a "Web service" as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network". It has an interface described in a machine-processable format (specifically Web Services Description Language, known by the acronym WSDL). Other systems interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP messages, typically conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other Web-related standards."
 
Week's definition: Scalability
 In electronics (including hardware, communication and software) scalability is the ability of a system, network, or process, to handle growing amount of work in a capable manner or its ability to be enlarged to accommodate that growth.
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Week's definition: Netiquette
 Netiquette (short for "network etiquette" or "Internet etiquette") is a set of social conventions that facilitate interaction over networks, ranging from Usenet and mailing lists to blogs and forums. These rules were described in IETF RFC 1855.
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Week's definition: 3GPP Long Term Evolution
 3GPP Long Term Evolution, usually referred to as LTE, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals. It is based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA network technologies, increasing the capacity and speed using new modulation techniques. The standard is developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project).
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Week's definition: Workflow
 A workflow consists of a sequence of concatenated (connected) steps. Emphasis is on the flow paradigm, where each step follows the precedent without delay or gap and ends just before the subsequent step may begin. This concept is related to non overlapping tasks of single resources.
 
Week's definition: Cross-platform
 In computing, cross-platform, or multi-platform, is an attribute conferred to computer software or computing methods and concepts that are implemented and inter-operate on multiple computer platforms. Cross-platform software may be divided into two types; one requires individual building or compilation for each platform that it supports, and the other one can be directly run on any platform without special preparation, e.g., software written in an interpreted language or pre-compiled portable bytecode for which the interpreters or run-time packages are common or standard components of all platforms.

For example, a cross-platform application may run on Microsoft Windows on the x86 architecture, Linux on the x86 architecture and Mac OS X on either the PowerPC or x86 based Apple Macintosh systems. A cross-platform application may run on as many as all existing platforms, or on as few as two platforms.
 
Week's definition: Tag (metadata)
 In online computer systems terminology, a tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, or computer file). This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system.
 
Week's definition: Viral marketing
 Viral marketing, viral advertising, or marketing buzz are buzzwords referring to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as product sales) through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of viruses or computer viruses.
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Week's definition: Service-oriented architecture
 In software engineering, a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a set of principles and methodologies for designing and developing software in the form of interoperable services. These services are well-defined business functionalities that are built as software components (discrete pieces of code and/or data structures) that can be reused for different purposes. SOA design principles are used during the phases of systems development and integration.
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Week's definition: Augmented reality
 Augmented reality (AR) is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.
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Week's definition: Bandwidth
 In computer networking and computer science, bandwidth, network bandwidth, data bandwidth, or digital bandwidth is a bit rate measure of available or consumed data communication resources expressed in bits/second or multiples of it (kilobits/s, megabits/s etc.).
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Software release life cycle
 A software release life cycle refers to the phases of development and maturity for a piece of computer software...
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Week's definition: The knowledge economy
 The knowledge economy is a term that refers either to an economy of knowledge focused on the production and management of knowledge in the frame of economic constraints, or to a knowledge-based economy.
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Week's definition: Tidal power
 Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. lthough not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation.
 
Week's definition: HTML5
 HTML5 is a language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web, a core technology of the Internet. It is the fifth revision of the HTML standard (originally created in 1990 and most recently standardized as HTML4 in 1997) and as of July 2011 was still under development. Its core aims have been to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices (web browsers, parsers etc.). HTML5 is intended to subsume not only HTML4, but XHTML1 and DOM2HTML (particularly JavaScript) as well.

 
Week's definition: Mashup (web application hybrid)
 In Web development, a mashup is a Web page or application that uses and combines data, presentation or functionality from two or more sources to create new services. The term implies easy, fast integration, frequently using open APIs and data sources to produce enriched results that were not necessarily the original reason for producing the raw source data.
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Week's definition: Digital divide
 The digital divide refers to the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard both to their opportunities to access information and communications technologies (ICT's) and to their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities.
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Week's definition: Fuel cell
 A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts chemical energy from a fuel into electric energy.
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Week's definition: E-Ink
 E-Ink (electrophoretic ink) is a specific proprietary type of electronic paper manufactured by E Ink Corporation, founded in 1997 based on research started at the MIT Media Lab. It is currently available commercially in grayscale and color and is commonly used in mobile devices such as e-readers (Amazon's Kindle) and, to a lesser extent, mobile phones and watches.
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Week's definition: Near field communication (NFC)
 The NFC is a unit auction-related system of mobile phone stores the information limited numbers of accounts and user information, and allow the exchange of information between devices through short-wave term not exceeding four inches maximum so as to prevent contact by mistake to other devices such as devices to cash in as a security precaution.
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Week's definition: Digital rights management (DRM)
 Digital rights management (DRM) is a term for access control technologies that are used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders and individuals to limit the use of digital content and devices. The term is used to describe any technology that inhibits uses of digital content that is not desired or intended by the content provider. The term does not generally refer to other forms of copy protection, which can be circumvented without modifying the file or device, such as serial numbers or keyfiles. It can also refer to restrictions associated with specific instances of digital works or devices.
 
Week's definition: Quantum computer
 A quantum computer is a device for computation that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from traditional computers based on transistors. The basic principle behind quantum computation is that quantum properties can be used to represent data and perform operations on these data. A theoretical model is the quantum Turing machine, also known as the universal quantum computer.
 
Week's definition: Software as a service
 Software as a service (SaaS, typically pronounced [sæs]), sometimes referred to as "on-demand software," is a software delivery model in which software and its associated data are hosted centrally (typically in the (Internet) cloud) and are typically accessed by users using a thin client, normally using a web browser over the Internet.
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Week's definition: Smartphone
 A smartphone is a mobile phone that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary feature phone. Smartphones and feature phones may be thought of as handheld computers integrated with a mobile telephone, but while most feature phones are able to run applications based on platforms such as iOS, Android, BlackBerry, Symbian and Linux with their derivatives.
 
Week's definition: Geographic information system
 A geographic information system (GIS), geographical information system, or geospatial information system is a system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages and presents data with reference to geographic location data. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis and database technology.

GIS may be used in archaeology, geography, cartography, remote sensing, land surveying, public utility management, natural resource management, precision agriculture, photogrammetry, urban planning, emergency management, GIS in Environmental Contamination, landscape architecture, navigation, aerial video and localized search engines.
 
Week's definition: Semantic Web
 The Semantic Web is a "web of data" that enables machines to understand the semantics, or meaning, of information on the World Wide Web.

It extends the network of hyperlinked human-readable web pages by inserting machine-readable metadata about pages and how they are related to each other, enabling automated agents to access the Web more intelligently and perform tasks on behalf of users.

In this way, a machine can process knowledge itself, instead of text, using processes similar to human deductive reasoning and inference, thereby obtaining more meaningful results and helping computers to perform automated information gathering and research.
 
Week's definition: Cloud computing
 Cloud computing refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer network. In the traditional model of computing, both data and software are fully contained on the user's computer; in cloud computing, the user's computer may contain almost no software or data (perhaps a minimal operating system and web browser only), serving as little more than a display terminal for processes occurring on a network of computers far away. A common shorthand for a provider's cloud computing service (or even an aggregation of all existing cloud services) is "The Cloud".

The most common analogy to explain cloud computing is that of public utilities such as electricity, gas, and water. Just as centralized and standardized utilities free individuals from the vagaries of generating their own electricity or pumping their own water, cloud computing frees the user from having to deal with the physical, hardware aspects of a computer or the more mundane software maintenance tasks of possessing a physical computer in their home or office. Instead they use a share of a vast network of computers, reaping economies of scale.
 
Week's definition: QR code
 QR Code for the URL of the English Wikipedia Mobile main page. Note that the white border is part of the encoding.

A QR code (short for Quick Response) is a specific matrix barcode (or two-dimensional code), readable by dedicated QR barcode readers and camera phones. The code consists of black modules arranged in a square pattern on a white background. The information encoded can be text, URL or other data.

Although initially used for tracking parts in vehicle manufacturing, QR codes are now used in a much broader context, including both commercial tracking applications and convenience-oriented applications aimed at mobile phone users (known as mobile tagging). QR codes can be used to display text to the user, to add a vCard contact to the user's device, to open a URI or to compose an email or text message. Users can also generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several free QR code generating sites.

QR codes storing addresses and URLs may appear in magazines, on signs, buses, business cards, or on just about any object about which users might need information. Users with a camera phone equipped with the correct reader application can scan the image of the QR Code to display text, contact information, connect to a wireless network, or open a web page in the phone's browser. This act of linking from physical world objects is known as a hardlink or physical world hyperlinks.
 
Week's definition: Virtualization
 Virtualization, in computing, is the creation of a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, such as a hardware platform, operating system, a storage device or network resources.

Virtualization can be viewed as part of an overall trend in enterprise IT that includes autonomic computing, a scenario in which the IT environment will be able to manage itself based on perceived activity, and utility computing, in which computer processing power is seen as a utility that clients can pay for only as needed. The usual goal of virtualization is to centralize administrative tasks while improving scalability and work loads.
 
Week's definition: RFID
 Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses communication via radio waves to exchange data between a reader and an electronic tag attached to an object, for the purpose of identification and tracking. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader. The application of bulk reading enables an almost parallel reading of tags.

Radio-frequency identification involves interrogators (also known as readers), and tags (also known as labels).
 


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